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Independent Science on Public Health Concerns Regarding Synthetic Turf

The following scientific studies on synthetic turf are the property of their respective Copyright owners

I. Crumb Rubber General

II. Crumb Rubber Chemicals

      A. 1,3 Butadiene                                  

      B. Arsenic                                            

      C. Arylamines                                      

      D. Benzene                                          

      E. Benzothiazoles                                

      F. Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) 

      G. Cadmium                                        

      H. Carbon Black                                

      I. Lead                                    

      J. Manganese                         

      K. Mercury                                        

      L. Phenols                                          

      M. Phthalates             

      N. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

      O. Styrene

      P. Toluidine                           

      Q. Trichloroethylene (TCE)

III. Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)

IV. Bioaccessibility

 V.  Heat Effects

VI. Injuries

VII. Reports & Articles

k. Mercury

I.  Crumb Rubber General

1. Massey, R, Pollard, L, Jacobs, M, Onasch, J, Harari, H, "Artificial turf infill: A comparative assessment of chemical contents," NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy. (2020) 30(1):10-26.06

2. Benoit, G and Demars, S. “Evaluation of organic and inorganic compounds extractable by multiple methods from commercially available crumb rubber mulch.” Water Air and Soil Pollution (2018) 229:64.


3. Celeiro, M, Thierry, D, and Llompart, M. “Determination of priority and other hazardous substances in football fields of synthetic turf by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A health and environmental concern.” Chemosphere (2018) 195: 201-211.


II. Crumb Rubber Chemicals


A.  1,3 Butadiene


1. Grant, RL, et al. "Development of a unit risk factor for 1, 3‐butadiene based on an updated carcinogenic toxicity as sessment." Risk Analysis (2009) 29:12 1726-1742.

2. Heck, JE, et al. "Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood." International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health (2014) 217:6 662-668.


3. Koturbash, I, et al. "Epigenetic alterations in liver of C57BL/6J mice after short-term inhalational exposure to 1, 3-butadiene." Environmental Health Perspectives (2011) 119:5 635.


4; Whitworth, KW, Symanski, E, and Coker, AL. "Childhood lymphohematopoietic cancer incidence and hazardous air pollutants in southeast Texas, 1995–2004." Environmental Health Perspectives (2008) 116:11  1576.


5. Zhou, J, et al. "Health risk assessment of personal inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds in Tianjin, China." Science of the Total Environment (2011) 409:3 452-459.


B.  Arsenic


1. Chen, Y, et al. "Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2009) 239:2, 184-192.


2. Kozul, CD, et al. "Low-dose arsenic compromises the immune response to influenza A infection in vivo." Environmental Health Perspectives  (2009) 117:9, 1441.


3. Moon, KA, et al. "Association between exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels and incident cardiovascular disease: A prospective cohort study." Annals of Internal Medicine (2013) 159:10, 649-659.


4. Naujokas, MF, et al. "The broad scope of health effects from chronic arsenic exposure: update on a worldwide public health problem." Environmental Health Perspectives  (2013) 121:3, 295.


5. O’Bryant, SE, et al. "Long-term low-level arsenic exposure is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning: a Project FRONTIER study." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public (2011) 8:3, 861-874.


6. Parvez, F, et al. "Arsenic exposure and motor function among children in Bangladesh." Environmental Health Perspectives (2011) 119:11, 1665.


7. Smith, AH, et al. "Increased lung cancer risks are similar whether arsenic is ingested or inhaled." Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2009) 19:4, 343-348.


8. Tokar, EJ, Diwan, BA, and Waalkes, MP. "Arsenic exposure transforms human epithelial stem/progenitor cells into a cancer stem-like phenotype." Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118:1, 108.


9. Vahter, M. "Health effects of early life exposure to arsenic." Basic and Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology (2008) 102:2, 204-211.


10. Yuan, Y, et al. "Kidney cancer mortality: fifty-year latency patterns related to arsenic exposure." Epidemiology (2010) 21:1, 103-108.


C.  Arylamines


1. Brown, SC, Alberts, R, and Schoenberg, M. "Cancer incidence and mortality among workers exposed to benzidine." American Journal of Industrial Medicine (2011) 54:4, 300-306.


2. de Vocht, F, et al. "Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland." Cancer (2009) 33:2, 94-102.


3. English, JC, et al. "Establishing a total allowable concentration of o-toluidine in drinking water incorporating early lifestage exposure and susceptibility." Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2012) 64:2, 269-284.


4. Richter, E. "Biomonitoring of human exposure to arylamines." Frontiers in Bio-Science (2015) 7: 222-238.


5. Tao, L, et al. "Elevated 4-aminobiphenyl and 2, 6-dimethylaniline hemoglobin adducts and increased risk of bladder cancer among lifelong nonsmokers—The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study." Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers (2013) 22:5, 937-945.


D.  Benzene


1. Andreoli, R, et al. "Urinary biomarkers of exposure and of oxidative damage in children exposed to low airborne concentrations of benzene." Environmental Research (2015) 142: 264-272.


2. Bahadar, H, Mostafalou, S, and Abdollahi, M. "Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: a global concern." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2014) 276:2, 83-94.


3. Brosselin, P, et al. "Acute childhood leukaemia and residence next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages: the ESCALE study (SFCE)." Occupational and Environmental Medicine (2009) 66:9, 598-606.


4. Martins, PC, et al. "Airways changes related to air pollution exposure in wheezing children." European Respiratory Journal (2012) 39:2, 246-253.


5. McHale, CM, et al. "Global gene expression profiling of a population exposed to a range of benzene levels." Environmental Health Perspectives (2011) 119:5, 628.


6. Pariselli, F, et al. "Effects of toluene and benzene air mixtures on human lung cells (A549)." Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology (2009) 61:4, 381-386.


7. Ruchirawat, M, Navasumrit, P, and Settachan, D. "Exposure to benzene in various susceptible populations: co-exposures to 1, 3-butadiene and PAHs and implications for carcinogenic risk." Chemico-Biological Interactions (2010) 184:1, 67-76.


8. Snyder, R. "Leukemia and benzene." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2012) 9:8, 2875-2893.


9. Xing, C, et al. "Benzene exposure near the US permissible limit is associated with sperm aneuploidy." Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118:6, 833.


E.  Benzothiazoles


1. Avagyan, R, et al. "Tire tread wear particles in ambient air--a previously unknown source of human exposure to the biocide 2-mercaptobenzothiazole."Environmental Science and Pollution Research International  (2014) 21:19, 11580-6.


2. Li, X, et al. "Characterization of substances released from crumb rubber material used on artificial turf fields." Chemosphere (2010) 80:3, 279-285.


3. Wan, Y, Xue, J, and Kannan, K. "Benzothiazoles in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure." Journal of Hazardous Materials (2016) 311: 37-42.


4. Zhao, B, et al. “Common and consumer products contain activators of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor.” PLoS One (2013) 8:2.

F.  Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)


1. Jenerowicz, D, et al. "Environmental factors and allergic diseases." Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine (2012) 19:3.


2. Kashanian, S, and Dolatabadi, J. "In vitro study of calf thymus DNA interaction with butylated hydroxyanisole." DNA and Cell Biology (2009) 28:10, 535-540.


3. Pop, A, et al. "Evaluation of the possible endocrine disruptive effect of butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate in immature female rats." Farmacia (2013) 61:1, 202-211.


4. Vandghanooni, S, et al. "Cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation properties of butylated hydroxyanisole." DNA and Cell Biology (2013) 32:3, 98-103.


G.  Cadmium


1. Adams, SV, Passarelli, MN, and Newcomb, PA, "Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort." Occupational Environmental Medicine (2012) 69:2, 153-156.


2. Ferraro, PM, et al. "Low level exposure to cadmium increases the risk of chronic kidney disease: analysis of the NHANES 1999-2006." BMC Public Health (2010) 10:1, 304.


3. Gallagher, CM, Chen, JJ, and Kovach, JS. "Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk." Aging  (Albany, NY) (2010) 2:11, 804.


4. García-Esquinas, E, et al. "Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort: the strong heart study." Environmental Health Perspectives  (2014) 122:4, 363.


5. Hossain, MB, et al. "Low-level environmental cadmium exposure is associated with DNA hypomethylation in Argentinean women." Environmental Health Perspectives (2012) 120:6,  879.


6. Jiang, G, et al. "Effects of long-term low-dose cadmium exposure on genomic DNA methylation in human embryo lung fibroblast cells." Toxicology, (2008) 244:1, 49-55.


7. Johri, N, Jacquillet, G, and Unwin, R. "Heavy metal poisoning: the effects of cadmium on the kidney." Biometals  (2010) 23:5, 783-792.


8. Kippler, M, et al. "Early-life cadmium exposure and child development in 5-year-old girls and boys: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh." Environmental Health Perspectives (2012) 120:10, 1462.


9. Nawrot, TS, et al. "Cadmium exposure in the population: from health risks to strategies of prevention." Biometals (2010) 23:5, 769-782.


10. Peters, JL, et al. "Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure." Environmental Research (2010) 110:2, 199-206.


11. Rodríguez-Barranco, M, et al. "Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain." Environmental Research (2014) 134: 66-73.


12. Satarug, S, et al. "Cadmium, environmental exposure, and health outcomes." Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118: 182-190.


13. Tellez-Plaza, M, et al. "Cadmium exposure and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the US general population." Environmental Health Perspectives (2012) 120:7, 1017.


H.  Carbon Black


1. Bourdon, JA, et al. "Carbon black nanoparticle instillation induces sustained inflammation and genotoxicity in mouse lung and liver." Particle and Fibre Toxicology (2012) 9:1


2. Bourdon, JA, et al. "Hepatic and pulmonary toxicogenomic profiles in mice intratracheally instilled with carbon black nanoparticles reveal pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response, and alterations in lipid homeostasis." Toxicological Sciences  (2012) 127:2, 474-484.


3. Hussain, S, et al. "Carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles elicit distinct apoptotic pathways in bronchial epithelial cells." Particle and Fibre Toxicology (2010) 7:1


4. Jacobsen, NR, et al. "Mutation spectrum in FE1‐MUTA(TM) Mouse lung epithelial cells exposed to nanoparticulate carbon black." Environmental and Molecular Mutagens (2011) 52:4, 331-337.


5. Neghab, M, Mohraz, MH, and Hassanzadeh, J. "Symptoms of respiratory disease and lung functional impairment associated with occupational inhalation exposure to carbon black dust." Journal of Occupational Health (2011) 53:6, 432-438.


6. Reisetter, AC, et al. "Induction of inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis by carbon black nanoparticles." Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011) 286.24, 21844-21852.


7. Saputra, D, et al. "Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles aggravates pulmonary inflammation in mice." Toxicological Research (2014) 30:2, 83.


8. Vesterdal, LK, et al. "Carbon black nanoparticles and vascular dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells and artery segments." Toxicology Letters (2012) 214:1, 19-26.


9. Zhang, R, et al. "Reduced pulmonary function and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nanoscale carbon black-exposed workers." Particle and Fibre Toxicology (2014) 11:1, 73.


I.  Lead


1. Betts, KS. “CDC updates guidelines for children’s lead exposure.” Environmental Health Perspectives (2012) 120:7.


2. Dapul, H and Laraque, D. “Lead poisoning in children.” Advances in Pediatrics (2014) 61: 313-333.


3. Evens, A, et al. “The impact of low-level lead toxicity on school performance among children in the Chicago Public Schools: a population-based retrospective cohort study.” Environmental Health (2015) 14.


4. Grandjean, P and Landrigan, P. “Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.” The Lancet Neurology (2014) 13:3, 330-338.


5. Jakubowski, M. “Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children – the current concepts of risk assessment.” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health (2011) 24:1, 1-7.


6. Jusko, TA, et al. “Blood lead concentrations < 10 μg/dL and child intelligence at 6 years of age.” Environmental Health Perspectives (2008) 116:2, 243-248.


7. Levin, R, et al. “Lead exposures in U.S. children, 2008: implications for prevention.” Environmental Health Perspectives (2008) 116:10, 1285–1293.


8. Mason, LH, et al. “Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity.” Biomed Research International (2014).


9. Van Ulirsch, G, et al. “Evaluating and regulating lead in synthetic turf.” Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118:10, 1345–1349.


J.  Manganese


1. Burton NC and TR Guilarte. “Manganese neurotoxicity: Lessons learned from longitudinal studies in nonhuman primates.” Environmental Health Perspectives (2009) 117:3, 325-332.


2. Guilarte, TR. “Manganese neurotoxicity: new perspectives from behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuropathological studies in humans and non-human primates.” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience  (2013) 5.


3. Karki, P, et al. “Manganese neurotoxicity: a focus on glutamate transporters.” Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (2013) 25.


4. Neala, A and TR Guilarte. “Mechanisms of lead and manganese neurotoxicity.” Toxicology Research (2013) 2:2, 99–114.

K.  Mercury


1. Bernhoft, RA. “Mercury toxicity and treatment: A review of the literature.” Journal of Environmental and Public Health (2012).


2. Bose-O’Reilly, S, et al. “Mercury exposure and children's health.” Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care (2010) 40:8, 186-215.


3. Boujbiha, MA, et al. “Testicular toxicity in mercuric chloride treated rats: association with oxidative stress.” Reproductive Toxicology (2009) 28:1, 81-89.


4. Crespo-Lopez, ME, et al. “Mercury and human genotoxicity: critical considerations and possible molecular mechanisms.” Pharmacological Research (2009) 60:4, 212-220.


5. Holmes, P, et al. “Is low-level environmental mercury exposure of concern to human health?” Science of The Total Environment (2009) 408:2, 171-182.


6. Park, J and Zheng, W. “Human exposure and health effects of inorganic and elemental mercury.”  Journal of Preventive Medicine & Public Health (2012) 45:6, 344–352.


7. Rice, KM, et al. “Environmental mercury and its toxic effects.” Journal of Preventive Medicine & Public Health (2014) 47:2, 74-83.


L.  Phenols


1. Barlas, N and Aydofan, M. “Histopathologic effects of maternal 4-tert-octylphenol exposure on liver, kidney and spleen of rats at adulthood.” Archives of Toxicology (2009) 83:4, 341-349.


2. Calafat, AM, et al. “Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003–2004.” Environmental Health Perspectives (2008) 116:1, 39-44.


3. Sainath, SB, et al. “Embryonic exposure to octylphenol induces changes in testosterone levels and disrupts reproductive efficiency in rats at their adulthood.” Food and Chemical Toxicology (2011) 49:4, 983-990.


4. Ulutas, OK, et al. “An in vivo assessment of the genotoxic potential of bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol in rats.” Archives of Toxicology (2011) 85: 995-1001.


5. Yildiz, N. and Barlas, N. “Hepatic and renal functions in growing male rats after bisphenol A and octylphenol exposure.” Human and Experimental Technology (2013) 32:7, 675-686.

M.  Phthalates


1. Boas, Malene, et al. "Childhood exposure to phthalates: associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor I, and growth." Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118:10.


2. Bornehag, CG, and Nanberg, E. "Phthalate exposure and asthma in children." International Journal of Andrology (2010) 33:2, 333-345.


3. Cho, S, et al. "Relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and the intelligence of school-age children." Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118:7, 1027.


4. Chopra, V, et al. "Association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder and learning disability in US children, 6–15 years." Environmental Research (2014) 128, 64-69.


5. Chou, Y, et al. "Phthalate exposure in girls during early puberty." International Journal of Andrology (2009) 22:1, 69-78.


6. Kim, B, et al. "Phthalates exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school-age children." Biological Psychiatry (2009) 66:10, 958-963


7. Koch, HM, et al. "Exposure to phthalates in 5–6 years old primary school starters in Germany—a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment." International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health (2011) 214:3, 188-195.


N.  Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)


1. Bae, S, et al. "Exposures to particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidative stress in schoolchildren." Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118:4, 579.


2. Edwards, SC, et al. "Prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and children’s intelligence at 5 years of age in a prospective cohort study in Poland." Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118:9.


3. Grant, WB. "Air pollution in relation to US cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons." Anticancer Research (2009) 29:9, 3537-3545.


4. Jung, KH, et al. "Assessment of benzo (a) pyrene-equivalent carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of residential indoor versus outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposing young children in New York City." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2010) 7:5, 1889-1900.


5. Kim, K, et al. "A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects." Environment International (2013) 60: 71-80.


6. Perera, FP, et al. "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons–aromatic DNA adducts in cord blood and behavior scores in New York City children." Environmental Health Perspectives (2011) 119:8, 1176.


O.  Styrene


1. Harvilchuck, JA, et al. "Indicators of oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse whole lung and Clara cells following exposure to styrene and its metabolites." Toxicology (2009) 264:3 171-178.


2. Huff, J, and Infante, PF. "Styrene exposure and risk of cancer." Mutagenesis  (2011) 26:5, 583-584.


3. Mögel, I, et al. “The aromatic volatile organic compounds toluene, benzene and styrene induce COX-2 and prostaglandins in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and p38 MAPK activation.” Toxicology (2011) 289:1, 28-37.


4. Roder-Stolinkis, C, et al. “Styrene induces an inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and NF-κB activation.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2008) 231:2, 241-247.


5. Rueff, J, et al. "Genetic effects and biotoxicity monitoring of occupational styrene exposure." Clinica Chimica Acta (2009) 399.1, 8-23.


6. Sati, PC. “Pulmonary function and oxidative stress in workers exposed to styrene in plastic factory: Occupational hazards in styrene-exposed plastic factory workers.” Human and Experimental Toxicology (2011) 30:11, 1743-1750.


7. Wongvijitsuk, S, et al. "Low level occupational exposure to styrene: its effects on DNA damage and DNA repair." International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health (2011) 214.2, 127-137.


P.  Toluidine


1. Böhm, F, et al. “DNA adducts of ortho-toluidine in human bladder.” Biomarkers (2011) 16:2, 120-128.

2. Carreón, T, et al. "Bladder cancer incidence among workers exposed to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant." Occupational Environmental Medicine (2013).


3. Sorahan, Tom. "Bladder cancer risks in workers manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry." Occupational Medicine (2008) 58:7, 496-501.


Q.  Trichloroethylene


1. Blossom, SJ, et al. "Developmental exposure to trichloroethylene promotes CD4+ T cell differentiation and hyperactivity in association with oxidative stress and neurobehavioral deficits in MRL+/+ mice." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2008) 231:3, 344-353.


2. Blossom, SJ, et al. "Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2013) 269:3, 263-269.


3. Cai, P, et al. "Chronic exposure to trichloroethene causes early onset of SLE-like disease in female MRL+/+ mice." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2008) 228:1, 68-75.


4. Chiu, WA, et al. "Human health effects of trichloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues." Environmental Health Perspectives (2013) 121:3, 303.


5. Cooper, GS, et al. "Evidence of autoimmune-related effects of trichloroethylene exposure from studies in mice and humans." Environmental Health Perspectives (2009) 117:5, 696.


6. Hu, C, et al. “Possible involvement of oxidative stress in trichloroethylene-induced genotoxicity in human HepG2 cells.” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis (2008) 29:1, 88–94.


7. Jiang, Y, et al. “Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.” PLoS ONE (2014) 9:12.


8. Karami, S, et al. “Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers: a meta-analysis.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine (2013) 70: 591-599.


9. Khan, S, et al. “Effect of trichloroethylene (TCE) toxicity on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane and oxidative stress in kidney and other rat tissues.” Food and Chemical Toxicology (2009) 47:7, 1562-1568.


10. Lan, Q, et al. “Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene is associated with a decline in lymphocyte subsets and soluble CD27 and CD30 markers.” Carcinogenesis (2010) 31:9, 1592–1596.


11. Lash, LH, et al. “Trichloroethylene biotransformation and its role in mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and target organ toxicity.” Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research (2014) 762, 22–36.


12. Purdue, MP, et al. "A case–control study of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and non-Hodgkin lymphoma." Environmental Health Perspectives (2011) 119:2, 232.


13. Rusyn, I, et al. "Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard." Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014) 141:1, 55-68.


14. Siegel Scott, C, and Jinot, J. "Trichloroethylene and cancer: systematic and quantitative review of epidemiologic evidence for identifying hazards." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  (2011) 8:11, 4238-4271.

III. Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


1. de Haan, et al. "The dark side of artificial greening: Plastic turfs as widespread pollutants of aquatic environments." Environmental Pollution (2023) Oct 1;334:122094.


2. Dragon, J, Hoaglund, M, Badereddy, A, et al. "Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) affect inflammation in lung cells and tissues." International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2023) 24:10, 8539


3. Anderko, L, Pennea, E. "Exposures to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): Protective risks to reproductive and children's health." Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care (2020) Vol 50, Issue 2

4. Murphy, M, and Warner, G. “Health impacts of artificial turf: Toxicity studies, challenges, and future directions.” Environmental Pollution (2022) Vol. 310: 119841


5. Ankley, G, Cureton, P, Hoke, R, et al. "Assessing the ecological risks of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Current state-of-the-science and a proposed path forward." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2020) 564-605

6. Zuccaro, P, et al. “Assessing extraction-analysis methodology to detect fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), a class of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), in artificial turf fibers and crumb rubber infill.” Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering (2023) Vol. 7, 100280.


7. Espartero, Y, et al. "Health related toxicity of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Comparisons to legacy PFOS and PFOA."  Environmental Research (2022) Vol. 212, Part C, 113431


8. Stanifer, JW, et al. "Perfluorinated chemicals as emerging environmental threats to kidney health." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (2018) 13:10 1479–1492.


9. Lauris, M, et al. “Widespread occurrence of non-extractable fluorine in artificial turfs from Stockholm, Sweden” Environmental Science Technology Letters (2022) 9, 8, 666-672


10. Fenton, SE, et al. "Per‐ and polyfluoroalkyl substance toxicity and human health review: Current state of knowledge and strategies for informing future research."  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (2020) 40:3,606–630.


11. Dhore, R, and Murthy, G. “Per/polyfluoroalkyl substances production, applications and environmental impacts.” Bioresource Technology (2021) Vol. 341:125808



IV. Bioaccessibility


1. Marsili L, et al. “Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals from rubber crumb in synthetic turf fields: Preliminary hazard assessment for athletes.” Environment & Analytical Toxicology (2014) Vol. 5:2


2. Kim, S, et al. “Health risk assessment of lead ingestion exposure by particle sizes in crumb rubber on artificial turf considering bioavailability.” Environmental Health and Toxicology (2012) Vol. 27


3. Zhang, J, et al. “Hazardous chemicals in synthetic turf materials and their bioaccessibility in digestive fluids.” Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology (2008) 18:6


4. Pavilonis, B, et al. “Bioaccessibility and risk of exposure to metals and SVOCs in artificial turf field Fill Materials and Fiber.”  Society of Risk Analysis (2014) 34:1


V.  Heat Effects


1. Thoms, A, et al. “Models for predicting surface temperatures on synthetic playing surfaces.” Procedia Engineering (2014) 72: 895-900.


2.  Pryor, J, et al. “The heat strain of various athletic surfaces: A comparison between observed and modeled wet-bulb globe temperatures.” Journal of Athletic Training (2017) 52:11 1056-1064


3.  Abraham, J, “Heat risks associated with synthetic athletic fields.” International Journal of Hyperthermia: the Official Journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group (2019) Vol. 36:1


4.  American Academy of Pediatrics: Council on sports medicine and fitness and council on school health. “Policy Statement – Climatic heat stress and exercising children and adolescents.” Pediatrics (2011) 128:3 741-747.


5.  Penn State’s Center for Sports Surface Research. “Synthetic turf heat evaluation – progress report.” (2012)


6.  Bristol, S, Mac Dermott, V, “Thermal effects associated with crumb rubber in-filled synthetic turf athletic fields.” Evaluation of the Environmental Effects of Synthetic Turf Athletic Fields (2008) 6-23,_of.pdf


7.  McNitt, AS, et al. “Temperature amelioration of synthetic turf surfaces through irrigation.” Pennsylvania State University, Acta Horticulturae (2008) 783: 573-582.


VI.  Injuries


1.  Drakos, M, et al. “Synthetic playing surfaces and athlete health.” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (2013) 21:5: 293-302.


2.  Fujitaka, K, et al. “Effect of changes in artificial turf on sports injuries in male university soccer players.” The Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine (2017) 5:8


3.  Akkaya, S, et al. “Football injuries on synthetic turf fields.” Joint Diseases and Related Surgery (2011) 22:3 155-159.


4.  Stiles, VH, et al. “Natural turf surfaces: The case for continued research” Sports Medicine (2009) 39:1 65-84


5.  Balazs, GC, et al. “Risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in athletes on synthetic playing surfaces: A systematic review.” American Journal of Sports Medicine (2014) 43:7 1798-1804.


6.  Aoki, H, et al. “Incidence of injury among adolescent soccer players: a comparative study of artificial and natural grass turfs.” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine (2010) 20:1.


7.  George, E, et al. “Incidence and risk factors for turf toe injuries in intercollegiate football: data from the national collegiate athletic association injury surveillance system.” Foot & Ankle International (2014) 35:2 108-115.


8.  Poulos, C, et al. “The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk and injury from competition and training on natural turf grass and 3rd generation artificial turf.”  BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation (2014) 6:11


9.  van den Eijnde, WA, et al. “Understanding the acute skin injury mechanism caused by player-surface contact during soccer: A survey and systemic review.” The Orthopedic Journal of Sports (2014) 2:5


10.  Lanzetti, RM, et al. “The influence of playing surface on injury risk in Italian elite rugby players.” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2017) 7:1 180-185.


11.  Dragoo, JL, Braun, HJ, “The effects of playing surface on injury rate: a review of the current literature.”  Sports (2010) 40:11 981-990.


12.  Taylor, SA, et al. “A review of synthetic playing surfaces, the shoe-surface interface, and lower extremity injuries in athletes.”  The Physician and Sports Medicine. (2012) 40:4, 66-72


13.  Wright, JM and Webner, D, “Playing field issues in sports medicine.” Current Sports Medicine Reports (2010) 9:3 129-133.


14.  Ekstrand, J, et al. “Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players.” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports (2011) 21: 824-832.


VII. Reports and Articles


1.  Toxics Use Reduction Institute. “Per- and Poly-fluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Artificial Turf”. Toxics Use Reduction Institute. (2020)


2.  Environmental Health Perspective: “Synthetic turf health debate takes root.” Environmental Health Perspectives (2008) 16:3 116-122


3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Synthetic turf field recycled tire crumb rubber research under the federal research action plan final report: Part 1 - Tire Crumb Characterization (Volumes 1 and 2)." (EPA/600/R-19/051). (2019).


Compilation prepared by Grassroots Environmental Education, Inc.

184 Main Street, Port Washington, New York 11050.
















3/24 DW

d. Benzene
e. Benzothiazoles
f. Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)
g. Cadmium
h. Carbon Black
i. Lead
j. Manganese
l. Phenols
m. Phthalates
n. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
o. Styrene
p. Toluidine
q. Trichloroethylene (TCE)
III. Bioaccessibility
IV. Heat Effects
V. Injuries
VI. Flame Retardants
I. Crumb Rubber General
VII. Disinfectants and Sanitizers

The documents contained in this digest are the property of the copyright owners and are for educational purposes only. 

Compilation prepared by Grassroots Environmental Education, Inc., 184 Main Street, Port Washington, New York 11050. 

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